Dangerous goods are products and substances, which by air transportation are able to create a significant threat to human health and safety, as well as for the safety of the aircraft.
Dangerous goods can damage the board air craft during transportation, storage, transportation, unloading and other operations, can cause fire, explosion, affect / destroy a warehouse at the airport, cause injury, radiation, burns to humans and animals during air transportation.
Classes of dangerous goods, their transportation requirements are contained in the “Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air” of ICAO. Guns and ammunition, including having no hazardous properties are carried in accordance with these rules.
CLASSIFICATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS
Dangerous goods (DG) are classified according to their degree of danger, as well as physical and chemical properties.
According to the degree of danger the dangerous goods are divided into groups:
- particularly dangerous goods;
- high risk loads;
- average risk loads;
- law risk loads;
- dangerous goods in limited quantities;
- dangerous goods in excepted quantities and airmail.
Particularly dangerous goods are goods that are prohibited for carriage by air under any circumstances:
- explosives that ignite or decompose under the influence of temperature 75оС within 48 hours;
- explosives containing chlorates mixture with phosphorus;
- solid explosives, which are classified as substances with extremely high sensitivity to mechanical shock;
- explosives containing chlorates as well as ammonium salts;
- liquid explosives, which are classified as substances with moderate sensitivity to mechanical shock;
- any substance or product which is capable of releasing hazardous amounts of heat or gas in normal conditions of air transportation;
- flammable solids and organic peroxides, which have the ability to explode and are packaged so that as an additional sign of risk classification rules require the use of explosion danger sign.
High risk loads are DG, which are forbidden for carriage without the prior state of liberation and require the packaging for the group I of the UN list for transportation, and infected animals.
Average risk loads are DG, which are transported in normal flight condition in accordance with established rules and require the packaging for the group II of the UN list for transportation.
Law risk loads are DG, which are transported in normal flight condition in accordance with established rules and require the packaging for the group III of the UN list for transportation.
Dangerous goods in limited quantities are DG with significantly less than the maximum permissible value of the transported mass (volume). For their transportation is required alternative packaging (Y mark before the desired number of the packaging).
Dangerous goods in excepted quantities and airmail are law risk loads with a minor quantity of transported mass (volume).
According to physical and chemical properties dangerous goods are divided into 9 classes:
- Explosive materials, that can explode because of their features, to be the reason of the fire and devices, that has explosive materials in its composition, that are used for manufacture pyrotechnical effect.
- Gases, including compressed, dissolved under pressure gases and vapours.
- Highly inflammable liquids mixes of liquids and liquids, contained rough substances in it and suspension, that release highly inflammable vapours, that has the temperature of flash in close capsule 60,5оС.
- Highly inflammable substances and materials (except qualified as inflammable), that can inflame during the transportation because of outer sources as a result of friction, liquid absorption, spontaneous chemical transformations and while heating.
- Oxidizing agents and organic peroxides that are able easily to emit oxygen, to maintain burning process, and also in corresponding conditions or in mixtures with other substances can make self-ignition or explosion.
- Toxic and infectious substances, that can be the reason of death, poisoning or deceases that while coming inside of the organism or while contact with skin and mucous tunic.
- Radioactive substance with specific activity more than 70 kBk (2nK/g).
- Caustic and corrosive substances that damage the skin, damaging of mucous membrane of eyes and breathing passages, metal corrosion and damages of vehicles, buildings or cargoes; also can be the reason of flame while interaction with organic materials and several chemical substances.
- Other dangerous goods such as substances with relative low level of dangerous while transportation, also substances, that are not referred to none of the previous classes, but that need special rules for transportation and storage.
STANDARDS AND RULES of UN
Dangerous Goods Regulations and their classification are presented in the so-called “Orange Book” of the United Nations, which is published by the relevant expert committee.
All substances that are dangerous goods, have the common international name, which is used for labeling, packaging and presentation of shipping documents. In accordance with the rules of air transportation of dangerous goods, each substance is assigned a unique four-digit number.
Dangerous Goods Regulations provide for their mandatory labeling with an indication of all classes of danger. Moreover, by specifying the main class must be accurately specified and category. By the transportation of products with irregularly shaped marking is done by attaching a hanging tag.
UN’s manual “Transport of Dangerous Goods” provides for the labeling of containers on the two sides, as well as on the four sides – for the container. The shape of such a mark is a rhombus with a minimum size of 100*100 mm. In accordance with the rules of transportation of dangerous goods, the information includes the symbolic notation and the main class number (if available – the category of substance), and the compatibility group letter code. Additional application of other information labels is possible.
RULES OF AIR TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS
Dangerous goods shall be securely packed in suitable containers and packaging, sealed and marked accordingly. It is also necessary to correctly describe the goods in the “Declaration of the sender on dangerous goods.”
The shipper shall comply with all carrier requirements for packaging, fasteners, providing additional neutralizing agents, fire extinguishing agents, etc.
Aboard an aircraft may not be dangerous goods which are incompatible with its properties. Transportation of dangerous cargoes and weapons should be carried out, usually by direct flights to a destination. Transportation overload at intermediate airports shall be permitted only with a special permit of transfer airport.
All required information must be provided by the air transportation of dangerous goods and weapons. The airport is only allowed temporary storage of dangerous goods, and certain categories of dangerous goods must be loaded and discharged directly into the cargo compartment of aircraft before departure (after landing), bypassing warehouses airports.
Aboard an aircraft (including in-flight) must be provided the access to dangerous goods (except for specified categories of normative documents) to monitor their condition and urgent action in cases of dangerous properties.
D.S.L. company is ready to organize air transportation of dangerous goods ensuring maximum protection and compliance with all requirements of the air carrier.